Before I was elected to the Senate, I served for eight years as the chief prosecutor for Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis and 45 suburbs. I know firsthand the vital role that law enforcement and public safety officers provide in keeping our citizens safe and that our criminal justice system cannot lose sight of the principles of fairness, compassion, and equality under the law. We must continue to address the systemic issues in policing and criminal justice that have gone unaddressed for too long.
In recent years, especially since 9/11, we have placed ever greater responsibilities on our police officers, firefighters, and first responders, who have been expected to significantly expand their abilities to respond to crises—while public safety budgets have been stretched increasingly thin, and even more so during the coronavirus pandemic. We must ensure that local, state, and federal first responders have the resources they need to purchase vital equipment, train law enforcement personnel, and acquire information systems to coordinate communications among first responders and various criminal justice agencies. As a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, I believe we owe it to our public safety officers to make sure they have the technologies, tools, and training they need to do their job safely and effectively.
Ensuring that our law enforcement officials have the resources needed to do their work is a critical part of combating the rise in domestic terrorism that our country has seen in recent years. The January 6th attack on our nation’s Capitol made clear that domestic extremist groups represent an urgent threat that federal, state, and local law enforcement must prioritize. As Chair of the Senate Rules Committee, I am now leading a bipartisan effort to find out what happened in the lead-up to and during the attack so that we make necessary public safety changes.
At the same time, our criminal justice system must administer justice fairly. Last year, in the wake of the murder of George Floyd, I worked with Senate colleagues to introduce the Justice in Policing Act, which holds officers accountable for misconduct, increases transparency in policing practices, and improves police conduct and training.
I have also long supported reforms to help ensure that our justice system works for everyone. That means making needed reforms to our sentencing laws and prisons, decreasing the number of non-violent drug offenders in our prisons by expanding access to home confinement and compassionate release programs for those who are now incarcerated, and supporting programs, like drug courts, that help keep non-violent offenders out of prison and are one of the most effective ways to reduce recidivism while providing access to treatment.
As Minnesota’s U.S. senator, I will continue to focus on these priorities:
- Providing our state and local law enforcement with critical tools to protect our communities. We must enhance and expand the programs that support local public safety officers as they prepare for and react to local crises and homeland security threats, including those from domestic terrorism. As chief prosecutor for Minnesota’s largest county, I saw what a difference it makes when law enforcement officers can actually create a partnership with local communities in Minnesota. I will continue to champion these programs as well as other key federal initiatives for law enforcement and public safety.
- Countering domestic terrorism and violent extremism. I have long supported efforts to strengthen the federal government’s response to domestic terrorism by establishing offices at the Department of Justice and Department of Homeland Security dedicated to combating this threat and providing training and resources to assist state, local, and tribal law enforcement to investigate and stop acts of domestic terrorism. As Chair of the Senate Rules Committee, I am also leading the bipartisan effort to investigate the January 6th attack on the Capitol so that we can make needed public safety changes. We must also protect our country from violent extremists and terrorist groups intent on doing harm to our communities. International terrorist groups have proven that they will go to extraordinary lengths to recruit U.S. citizens who could come back and foster extremism at home. One way to effectively stop this type of recruitment is for law enforcement to work hand-in-hand with local communities and to empower local leaders with tools to help keep young people off the path of extremism.
- Addressing systemic issues in our justice system. We must take on the systemic issues in policing and criminal justice that have gone unaddressed for too long. I will continue to work to pass legislation to hold officers accountable for misconduct, increase transparency in policing practices, and improve police conduct and training. We must also increase transparency about prosecutorial decisions, including by collecting statistics on charges, plea deals, and sentencing recommendations to help uncover implicit bias and discriminatory conduct, and we should expand federal support for investments in conviction integrity units to increase post-conviction sentencing reviews. Fixing our justice system also means enacting important reforms to our bail system, equipping all law enforcement officers with body cameras, and increasing federal funding to support public defenders.
- Reforming sentencing and greater use of drug treatment courts. By giving prosecutors and judges more discretion in sentencing and focusing on reducing recidivism, we can allow law enforcement to prioritize those who threaten the safety of our communities while helping to decrease the number of non-violent, low-level drug offenders in our prisons. And since approximately 90 percent of incarcerated people are in state and local facilities, we need to create federal incentives so that states can restore some discretion from mandatory sentencing for nonviolent offenders and improve the conditions in state prisons and local jails.
- Enhancing cooperation between federal, state, and local law enforcement. We must continue to target serious crime and domestic terrorism through partnerships among federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. I’ve seen the tragic impact of the prescription drug and heroin epidemic across Minnesota and the rise of synthetic drug use in our cities, suburbs, and rural communities. To tackle this, we must continue to support partnerships between law enforcement agencies with an emphasis on treatment of addiction, and hold those who are profiting off of people’s addiction accountable.
- Improving police and community relations. We need to focus on both public safety and building trust between law enforcement and our communities. I have long supported important policies including videotaped interrogations, reforms to the eyewitness process, body cameras, diversity in hiring, and meaningful work between law enforcement and our citizens.
- Promoting gun safety. We have seen far too many precious lives cut short, families torn apart, and communities plagued by the fear of gun violence. People across our state and country are rightly demanding action. As the former Hennepin County Attorney, I worked to enforce the gun laws already on the books and have long supported efforts to promote gun safety. We should pass commonsense legislation to disarm abusive dating partners and convicted stalkers, ban assault weapons, improve background checks, and close the loophole that allows suspected terrorists to buy firearms.
- Preventing domestic violence. During my eight years as county attorney, I saw firsthand how domestic abuse destroyed families. In these difficult economic times, victims should never feel forced to choose between personal safety and financial stability. I am committed to ensuring that women and children have the resources they need to protect themselves from violence, leave abusive situations, and hold their abusers accountable. This is especially true during the coronavirus pandemic, which has left many victims of domestic violence at heightened risk as people have stayed home to help limit the spread of the virus.
- Responding to the rise of prescription and synthetic drug abuse. Prescription drug abuse is now highest among young adults and has also increased rapidly among teenagers. The majority of teens who abuse these drugs get them for free, usually from friends and relatives, and often without their knowledge. Heroin overdose continues to be one of the leading causes of drug-related death in Minnesota, and four out of five heroin users got their start using legal prescription drugs. We must provide consumers with safe and effective means of disposing of prescription drugs so they don’t fall into the wrong hands. In recent years we have seen an alarming rise in the production, sale, and use of synthetic narcotics. These designer drugs have taken many lives, and we need to give law enforcement the tools they need to fight this problem and provide treatment to those who are addicted.
- Protecting children from predators—both on the streets and on the internet. In a fast-changing society, parents need all the help they can get to protect their children from emerging threats to their safety. Federal support is essential to local law enforcement to make sure sex offenders and other predators can be identified before they prey on victims.
- Combating sex trafficking. According to one study, on any given night in Minnesota, dozens of underage girls are sold for sex online. As a former prosecutor, I know how important it is to have policies in place that help victims break free from abuse. We must give prosecutors the tools they need to tackle sex trafficking and help make sure victims of these horrific crimes receive the support they need.
- Enhancing online privacy and preventing cybercrimes and hacking. As more and more Americans rely on the internet to shop, pay their bills, and connect with family and friends, online sites and advertisers have become ever more sophisticated at tracking and gathering information about our online behavior, raising concerns that consumers’ privacy is not properly protected, and cybersecurity breaches have affected businesses and consumers across the country. Our laws and enforcement tools must be as sophisticated as those trying to do us harm online. I will continue to advocate for measures that ensure confidence in online privacy and the security of consumer information.
- Making our roads and highways safer. Too many drivers are texting behind the wheel or driving under the influence. The consequences of bad driving are devastating and demand greater action—no text message is worth dying for. As a former prosecutor, I know how important it is to keep our roads safe and will continue to work to enact laws that prevent distracted driving. This is particularly important for teen drivers. Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for American teens, and drivers between the ages of 16 and 19 years old are nearly three times more likely to get in a crash than older drivers per mile driven. We must encourage safe practices and smart programs for training new drivers.
As Minnesota’s U.S. senator, I’ve been fighting to strengthen our commitment to public safety:
- Providing state and local law enforcement with critical tools to protect our communities. As chief prosecutor for Minnesota’s largest county, I know that building relationships between law enforcement officers and the people they serve is essential to keeping communities safe. I will continue to work to expand programs that support local public safety officers as they prepare for and react to local crises and homeland security threats, including from domestic terrorism. In February 2019, I worked with Senator Lisa Murkowski of Alaska to introduce the Behavioral Health Crisis Response Improvements Act, which supports state and local law enforcement agencies by providing behavioral health response training for officers who respond to cases involving people with a mental illness or a substance use disorder. I will continue to champion these programs as well as other key federal initiatives for law enforcement and public safety. I have also successfully fought for the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) and Byrne Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) programs, which have provided state and local law enforcement with needed support to hire, train, and equip public safety officers. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included $1 billion for the COPS hiring program to help save over 5,000 law enforcement jobs and keep cops on the front lines in communities across America. I have led legislation to help state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies throughout the United States hire and train law enforcement officers to participate in community policing, and I have also fought to maintain funding for the Byrne JAG program, which provides support to local law enforcement for multi-jurisdictional drug task forces, anti-gang efforts, specialized prosecutors, and other crime-fighting initiatives. I will continue to champion these programs as well as other key federal initiatives for law enforcement and public safety.
- Countering domestic terrorism and violent extremism. Addressing the threat of domestic terrorism and violent extremism must be a priority. I have long supported legislation to strengthen the federal government’s response to domestic terrorism by establishing offices at the Department of Justice and Department of Homeland Security dedicated to combating this threat and providing training and resources to assist state, local, and tribal law enforcement to investigate and stop acts of domestic terrorism. As Chair of the Senate Rules Committee, I have led bipartisan hearings to get much-needed answers from witnesses from federal agencies and key officials tasked with protecting the Capitol on January 6th. These hearings have been constructive, and I am continuing to work with my colleagues on both sides of the aisle to investigate this attack on our democracy and work toward solutions to secure our Capitol, protect our nation, and strengthen our system of government.
- Reforming our justice system. I worked with Senate colleagues to introduce the Justice in Policing Act, which holds officers accountable for misconduct, increases transparency in policing practices, and improves police conduct and training. Included in that legislation is my bill to prevent law enforcement use of chokeholds and other neck restraints. Addressing these systemic issues is one of my top priorities in the Senate.
We have made some progress in recent years to reform sentencing. In December 2018, the First Step Act was signed into law. I was a cosponsor of this important bill, which made needed reforms to our sentencing laws and prisons, including allowing judges to impose sentences below the mandatory minimum for certain non-violent, low-level drug offenders; reducing some of the longest sentences now on the books; and expanding access to substance abuse treatment and programs to prepare people to reenter society through employment and training opportunities.
In addition, as a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, I have long supported the bipartisan Sentencing Reform and Corrections Act and other reforms to help ensure that our justice system works for everyone. I also support creating federal incentives so that states can restore some discretion from mandatory sentencing for nonviolent offenders and reform the unconscionable conditions present in certain state prisons and local jails, which hold approximately 90 percent of incarcerated people. As the coronavirus pandemic has had a tragic and disproportionate impact on federal prisons, I have called for action to combat this public health crisis and to protect those who are at heightened risk—including by using existing Federal authority to transfer nonviolent people to home confinement or grant compassionate release. When the Bureau of Prisons suspended in-person visitation at federal prisons in an effort to limit the spread of the virus, I led the successful effort to waive phone charges to help incarcerated people stay in contact with their loved ones during the pandemic. Finally, once someone has served their time, they must be allowed to participate fully in our democracy, and I have worked to restore the right to vote of formerly incarcerated Americans.
- Protecting victims of hate crimes. When I first got to the Senate, I worked hard to pass the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act. As a prosecutor, I was at the White House when President Bill Clinton introduced the bill, and nine years later, I got to cast one of the deciding votes to make the bill a reality. Since then, I've worked with Senator Murkowski to introduce the bipartisan Justice for Victims of Hate Crimes Act, which will help to ensure that federal prosecutors can effectively enforce the federal hate crimes law. I also joined Senator Hirono on a bill to require the Department of Justice to invest the resources needed to fully investigate pandemic-related hate crimes against Asian Americans, which was signed into law in May 2021. And after the Dar Al-Farooq Islamic Center in Bloomington was the target of a bombing in August 2017, and earlier that year bomb threats were made against the St. Paul Jewish Community Center and the Sabes Jewish Community Center in St. Louis Park, I joined my colleagues in cosponsoring legislation to strengthen protections for religious institutions that was signed into law in September 2018.
- Supporting drug courts. During my time in the Senate I have been the leading advocate to provide critical support to our nation’s drug courts. Drug courts divert nonviolent drug offenders from prison and jail into treatment. The drug court model is one of the most successful, cost-effective tools for cutting recidivism rates and reducing crime in our communities. Three out of every four people who graduate from these programs are not arrested again—a 75 percent success rate, compared to just 30 percent in the traditional system. Drug courts also save taxpayer dollars by an average of $3,000 to $13,000 per person. Every $1 invested in drug courts saves more than $3 in criminal justice costs alone, as much as $27 on fewer emergency room visits, and lower health care, foster care, welfare, and property loss costs. By using drug courts for low-level, non-violent drug offenders, we can help people become productive members of society.
- Promoting gun safety. It is long past time that we come together across party lines to pass commonsense gun safety legislation that will prevent violence and save lives. As the former Hennepin County Attorney, I worked to enforce the gun laws already on the books and have long supported efforts to promote gun safety. I have introduced legislation to prevent abusive dating partners and convicted stalkers from purchasing firearms. The bill was included in the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act, which passed the House on a bipartisan vote. I support legislation to improve background checks and to close the loophole that allows suspected terrorists to buy firearms. I have also cosponsored bills to ban military-style assault weapons and ban “bump-stock” devices that can increase a semiautomatic rifle’s rate of fire to 700 rounds per minute.
- Supporting victims of assault, abuse, and stalking. In November 2019, I introduced legislation with several of my Senate colleagues to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, a landmark law that has had a profound role in protecting women and supporting the victims of sexual and domestic violence. This important bill includes a provision based on legislation that I have led for years to protect victims of stalking and domestic violence from gun violence. The bill also includes legislation I introduced with Senator Cornyn—the Abby Honold Act—which promotes the use of trauma-informed techniques by law enforcement when responding to sexual assault crimes. In 2013, I cosponsored and helped lead the effort to pass the last reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act, which included provisions from my bipartisan STALKERS Act to improve federal anti-stalking laws and protect victims by providing prosecutors with tools to combat the growing threat of cyberstalking. As county attorney, I also supported the Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Database Act, which was signed into law in 2006 and established a publicly available national database of sex offenders.
I have also worked to combat the heartbreaking crime of child abuse by introducing the National Child Protection Training Act, which would help train child protection professionals, such as teachers, doctors, and prosecutors, to detect and prevent child abuse. Finally, in response to the rise in reports of domestic violence during the pandemic, I led the effort with Senator Lisa Murkowski and Senator Bob Casey to increase federal support for victims and survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault during this public health crisis.
- Combating the opioid abuse epidemic and methamphetamine. I led three bipartisan bills that were signed into law as part of legislation to address the opioid epidemic in October, 2018: the SALTS Act, which I led with Senator Lindsey Graham to make it easier to prosecute the sale and distribution of “analogue” drugs, which are synthetic substances that are substantially similar to illegal drugs; the STOP Act, which I introduced with Senator Rob Portman to help stop dangerous synthetic drugs like fentanyl from being shipped through our postal system from overseas; and the Eliminating Kickbacks in Recovery Act, which I introduced with Senator Marco Rubio to help crack down on health care facilities or providers that try to game the system to take advantage of vulnerable patients. In addition, along with three other senators I introduced the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act (CARA), which became law in July 2016. This bipartisan legislation encourages states and local communities to pursue a full array of proven strategies in the fight against addiction, including expanding access to naloxone among law enforcement and other first responders.
In 2020, I introduced the CARA 2.0 Act with a bipartisan group of senators to build on the momentum of CARA by increasing funding and putting in place additional policy reforms to combat the opioid epidemic. One important provision in the CARA 2.0 Act is based on my bipartisan bill, the Prescription Drug Monitoring Act, to require states that receive certain federal funding to have prescription drug monitoring programs that use best practices to stop the kind of “doctor shopping” that facilitates addiction and to share their data with other states. We know that opioid addiction too often begins with the abuse of legal prescription painkillers, and with this bill, we can do something about that. In addition, we must continue working to help those suffering from addiction to access the treatment that they need. I helped to introduce the LifeBOAT Act with Senator Joe Manchin that simply places a one-cent fee on each milligram of active opioid ingredient in a prescription pain pill to create a permanent stream of funding for substance abuse treatment, and I’m continuing to fight for additional funds and resources for communities that have been impacted by addiction.
- Banning synthetic drugs. I introduced the Combating Designer Drugs Act to ban the substance known as 2C-E, a synthetic hallucinogen, and eight other similar substances. This legislation was a response to a tragic event in March 2011 where a Minnesota teenager died and ten others were hospitalized after overdosing on 2C-E. During that time, I also cosponsored two additional pieces of legislation to ban synthetic drugs. These bills banning dangerous synthetic drugs were signed into law in July 2012. Finally, I introduced the Synthetic Abuse and Labeling of Toxic Substances (SALTS) Act, legislation to make it easier to prosecute the sale and distribution of new synthetic drugs that are “analogues,” or substantially similar to current illegal drugs. That bill became law in October 2018.
- Allowing for safe disposal of prescription drugs. I authored the bipartisan Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act—which was signed into law by President Obama in October 2010—to provide consumers with safe and responsible ways to dispose of unused controlled substances. This law allows individuals and long-term care facilities to deliver the most dangerous prescription drugs to law enforcement officials for safe disposal and also promotes the development and expansion of drug take-back programs.
- Helping law enforcement find missing children. In the 112th Congress, I authored the bipartisan Access to Information about Missing Children Act with Senator John Cornyn of Texas to help federal, state, and local law enforcement locate missing children whose whereabouts could be discovered through basic information on federal tax returns. This legislation has been supported by Patty Wetterling, my friend and a child safety advocate, whose son, Jacob, was kidnapped and killed near his family’s home in St. Joseph, Minnesota in 1989. I introduced bipartisan legislation, the Recovering Missing Children Act, with Senator Bob Casey of Pennsylvania and former-Senator Mike Enzi of Wyoming to help law enforcement locate missing and exploited children. Our bill was signed into law in July 2016.
- Shielding children from inappropriate content. I cosponsored the Protecting Children in the 21st Century Act, which helps parents protect their children from inappropriate website content by requiring the Federal Trade Commission to implement a national educational campaign to promote the safe use of the internet by children and directing the U.S. Commerce Department to create a private sector working group to evaluate industry efforts to promote online safety. I also support new technologies that give parents greater control over what their kids see on television and what they can do on the internet. As a member of the Senate Commerce Committee and the Subcommittee on Consumer Protection, I will continue to fight for additional protections to safeguard children against online predators.
- Combating sex trafficking. I was a lead sponsor of the bipartisan Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act, which was signed into law in May 2015. This bipartisan legislation protects victims of child sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, and human trafficking by increasing law enforcement resources, improving victim services, and enhancing penalties. I then led legislation with Senator John Cornyn that was signed into law in December 2018 to strengthen key programs supporting survivors of human trafficking and provide resources to law enforcement officials working on the front lines of the fight against trafficking. I also authored the comprehensive bipartisan Stop Exploitation through Trafficking Act (SETT), which was enacted into law as part of the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act. My provision gives prosecutors the tools they need to tackle sex trafficking and helps make sure victims of these horrific crimes receive the support they need. The bill is modeled after Minnesota’s “safe harbor” law, which helps ensure that minors who are sold for sex aren’t prosecuted as defendants, but rather are treated as victims. In 2016, I introduced the Stop Trafficking on Planes (STOP) Act to require training for flight attendants to recognize and report suspected incidents of human trafficking. A provision based on my legislation was included in the FAA reauthorization bill that was passed into law in July 2016. Finally, I introduced legislation that became law in December 2016 to ensure funding for the National Human Trafficking Hotline, which provides 24-hour service, including forwarding tips to law enforcement and connecting victims of trafficking with resources and support.
- Enhancing online privacy and preventing cybercrimes and hacking. I have introduced bipartisan legislation with Senator John Kennedy of Louisiana to protect the privacy of consumers’ online data by ensuring that companies use plain language to explain to consumers how their data is being used, allowing consumers to opt out of certain data tracking and collection, and requiring companies to notify consumers of privacy violations within 72 hours of a breach. I have also introduced comprehensive federal online privacy legislation to establish privacy rights, outlaw harmful and deceptive practices, and improve data security safeguards with Senator Cantwell of Washington, Senator Schatz of Hawaii, and Senator Markey of Massachusetts. In addition, I have worked to provide the Department of Defense and our law enforcement agencies with the tools they need to strengthen our cybersecurity and have called on investigations of breaches to ensure we have the information we need to protect consumers.
In February 2019, I introduced legislation with Senator Thune of South Dakota to establish a program to recruit experts in the private sector and to do limited tours of duty in the federal government of up to two years. Our bill will also help government computer experts spend time in the private sector to learn best practices, which can then be applied to help further secure government computer systems and critical infrastructure. The bill passed the Commerce Committee in November 2019. After receiving alarming reports that our federal government websites were rendered unsecure during the 2019 government shutdown, I called on the Executive Branch to make sure that our federal government websites and online infrastructure remain secure in the event of a future shutdown or appropriations lapse. As more sophisticated cybersecurity hacks target our government and businesses, I will continue to advocate for measures that ensure confidence in online privacy and the security of consumer information.
- Providing first responders with life-saving communications tools. I was an original cosponsor of the Public Safety Spectrum and Wireless Innovation Act to allow for state-of-the-art technology that will help first responders in both rural and urban communities at no cost to taxpayers. I helped pass legislation to implement a nationwide wireless network to allow our first responders to clearly communicate when disaster strikes and focus on doing what they do best—saving lives. As co-chair of the Next Generation 9-1-1 Caucus, I am working with members of both parties to reauthorize the federal 9-1-1 Coordination Office. In May 2019, I introduced the Next Generation 9-1-1 Act to create a federal grant program to help state and local governments deploy next generation 9-1-1 systems across the country. This is an effort to manage the transition to the Next Generation 9-1-1 emergency response system based on high-speed digital wireless networks, and these upgrades will enable 9-1-1 dispatchers to work remotely at virtual call centers, as well as handle text messages, pictures, videos, and other information sent by smartphones, tablets, and other devices in an emergency, which is critically important during crises like the current pandemic. I also introduced the bipartisan Kari’s Law Act, which was signed into law in February 2018, to ensure that dialing 9-1-1 from multi-line telephone systems—like those used at many businesses, college campuses, and hotels—is as simple and efficient as possible.
- Fighting cell phone theft. Robberies often involve cell phone theft, with criminals targeting smartphones for their high resale value and for the valuable personal and financial information they contain. I introduced the Smartphone Theft Prevention Act, which would require the wireless industry to move forward with installing “kill switch” technology on all smartphones that will protect consumer data on the phone and allow consumers to render the device inoperable if the phone is stolen. After the initial push in 2014, wireless and device companies, including Apple, AT&T, Google, Motorola, Microsoft, Nokia, Samsung, Sprint, T-Mobile, U.S. Cellular, and Verizon, committed to install kill switch technology on new smartphones. I am working to make sure manufacturers and providers make good on this commitment and continue to take steps to ensure that all consumers have access to the most advanced technologies to protect their smartphones and personal information.
- Protecting driver’s privacy. I authored the Driver Privacy Act in 2014 and 2015 along with Republican Senator John Hoeven of North Dakota to make clear that the owner of the vehicle is the rightful owner of the data collected by a vehicle’s Event Data Recorder (EDR). An EDR temporarily stores data from the vehicle’s safety systems following a crash. While EDRs provide important data that can be used to better protect passengers, we need to ensure consumers’ privacy is being protected. The Driver Privacy Act was included in the long-term surface transportation reauthorization bill that was passed into law in December 2015.
- Improving teen driver safety. Mile for mile, teenagers are involved in nearly three times as many fatal car crashes as other drivers. Becoming a safe driver requires experience and practice. To help reduce teen driving deaths, I introduced the Students Taking Action for Road Safety (STARS) Act to use peer-to-peer prevention strategies to educate teens about the dangers of everything from drunk driving and speeding, to using seatbelts and texting while driving. This bill will help bring together law enforcement, educators, and local communities to give our teen drivers the tools they need to become responsible drivers and make our roads safer. I also joined Senator Kirsten Gillibrand to introduce the STAND Up Act to encourage states to adopt graduated driver license programs that have proven effective at reducing the crash risk of new drivers by introducing teens to the driving experience gradually, phasing in full driving privileges over time in lower risk settings, and teaching them to eliminate distractions that cause accidents. Provisions from both of these bills were included in the surface transportation reauthorization bill that was signed into law in July 2012. In June 2014 and May 2015, I introduced the Improving Driver Safety Act, which would help ensure that more states can access critical funding to improve distracted driving enforcement and public education. This legislation, as well as my provision to enable more states to qualify for federal funding for graduated driver license programs, were included in the long-term surface transportation reauthorization bill that was passed into law in December 2015.